The problems at Nottingham University

This post is not about science. It is in support of a postgraduate student (Rizwaan Sabir) and an administrator (Hisham Yezza) at Nottingham University, a short drive from my home.

Following my series of posts about MK-ULTRA research 50 years ago, Daniel Goldberg at the Medical Humanities Blog elaborated on the idea of state involvement as a necessary element in the most serious kinds of unethical human research.

This can happen in several ways: a) some of the worst examples of unethical research have been carried out by the state itself, b) precedents set by the state create cynicism over professional ethical guidance which is administered by the state, and c) state functionaries (professional regulators, product regulators) play an important role in the suppression of concerns over unethical conduct and assist in the bullying and marginalization of individuals raising legitimate concerns.

Systems function well, and gravitate towards some sort of integrity and truth when there is variability within those systems. Properly functioning systems require dissent. They require the diverse commentary of many individuals with differing perspectives on ethical standards. They require transparency. They require crooks, cooks and discussion over the definition of crookery and acceptable behaviour.

Clearly, the involvement of the state as a necessary element in systematic University malfunction goes beyond science. The problems of the past week at Nottingham University have been discussed elsewhere in some detail. Briefly, a postgraduate student (Rizwaan Sabir) was conducting research (into terrorism). He was arrested after downloading material (related to terrorism) from a US government website. I believe that the material is here - take a look. His Nottingham University supervisors insisted the materials were directly relevant to his research (which is on terrorism). A university administrator and previous student at Nottingham University (Hisham Yezza) printed some of the (publicly available) material for him. Both men were arrested, their homes were searched by police, and Yezza (the printer) faces immediate deportation. Upper echelons of the university (businessmen) decided that they knew what constitutes "legitimate research material". Certainly there are real and serious dangers in this world of ours. People who feel they have the right to blow other random individuals apart (or to act as apologists for others who do) are a part of that problem. Dealing with those dangers involves proper discussion as to what they are. That is what Universities are for.

Some news reports are here, and here. A campaign site is here. Yezza is Editor of the magazine Ceasefire - (download the latest issue here).
In the words of Thomas Jefferson 200 years ago:
It is error alone which needs the support of government. Truth can stand by itself.
(Thomas Jefferson 1743-1846, U.S. President, Notes on the State of Virginia, 1782)
We understood this 60 years ago.





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The bystander effect: would you stop for Britney Begonia?

Local 6, a Florida TV station has been conducting a series of experiments on the bystander effect.

In the latest "missing child experiment" they placed numerous posters in a mall with photographs of a missing 8 year old "Britney Begonia". Britney herself sat next to some of the signs. Hundreds of people walked past and saw the posters, but only two stopped to ask Britney anything. Many bystanders questioned later said they noticed the strange resemblance between Britney and the poster but were "fearful of getting involved."

An earlier Local 6 experiment involved a fake burglar breaking into a home. See also this publication on the bystander response to a mock casualty involving arterial bleeding.

The bystander effect has been extensively studied. The more people who observe an event, the less likely it is that anyone will intervene to help. Observers assume that someone else will do something and they feel less responsible. The obviousness of the problem makes little difference.

This is something that will be familiar most people who have tried to raise problems in science and in medicine. It is the underlying message of at least a dozen E-mails I get each week. Local academic colleagues very rarely engage with problems that go right to the heart of what it is to be an academic (or a doctor). They are happy to allow principles to be ignored, patients to be abused and for those raising concerns to be bullied into unemployment or even suicide. The silence and collusion with misconduct and fraud extends to professional regulatory bodies, drug regulators and government. It is hardly surprising concerns are never raised until it is too late.

Here is a selection of quotes about collaborators, bystanders and the shame of all those who fail to speak, and who fail to ask questions.

Science may have found a cure for most evils; but it has found no remedy for the worst of them all - the apathy of human beings.
Helen Keller

Truth is not only violated by falsehood; it may be equally outraged by silence.
Henri Frederic Amiel

To assist Enron all they had to do is to do nothing, and they did nothing very well

He who passively accepts evil is as much involved in it as he who helps to perpetuate it.
Martin Luther King, Jr

Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter.
Martin Luther King, Jr.

What luck for the rulers that men do not think.
Adolph Hitler

And the multitude was silent, not a voice, not a sound was heard upon the hillsides, across the valleys where they stood.
Richard Bach, Illusions

To sin by silence when they should protest makes cowards of men.
Abraham Lincoln

There is no shame in not knowing; the shame lies in not finding out.
Russian proverb

A society of sheep must in time beget a government of wolves.
Juvenal

The average age of the world's greatest civilizations has been two hundred years. These nations have progressed through this sequence: From bondage to spiritual faith; from spiritual faith to great courage; from courage to liberty; from liberty to abundance; from abundance to selfishness; from selfishness to complacency; from complacency to apathy; from apathy to dependence and back into bondage.
Fraser Tyler

You may never know what results come from your action. But if you do nothing, there will be no results.
Gandhi

The world is a dangerous place to live; not because of the people who are evil, but because of the people who don't do anything about it.
Albert Einstein

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Making stuff up



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Science, Morality, Abu Ghraib and Game theory - an interview

Seed magazine has just posted the text of a conversation between filmmaker Errol Morris and evolutionary psychologist Marc Hauser about game theory, Stanley Milgram, Abu Ghraib, A Clockwork Orange, communication with dogs, and whether science can make us better people.

It is quite relevant to general topic of this blog. I have always been intrigued by the odd combination of claimed due diligence and integrity with complete non transparency. For example, if Procter and Gamble have any residual faith in their "analysis" of Actonel data (welcome admissions of guilt apart) then why refuse to let everyone see it. They should be proud of their ultimate show of integrity. Likewise, if GlaxoSmithKline are proud of "science" on Seroxat/Paxil, and if the UK regulator the MHRA think that they conducted a plausible investigation of scientific fraud involving this drug, then why cover it up? Why not let everyone know what your definition of fraud is, and let everyone see the process and who made the decisions. What's there to hide?

A snippet:

EM: This is a question that I still wonder about. They said it's okay to kill Jews: Jews represent a threat to our way of life, to our gene pool, to our values, and so on. They've justified their behavior completely. But, if you think it's okay, then why try to cover it up? Why try to conceal the fact that you're doing it? That becomes the really complex question. You quickly enter this hall of mirrors. You can say, well, they thought it was the right thing to do, but they knew others might not view their behavior that way and that they should therefore cover their tracks. But isn't that tantamount to saying that they knew it was wrong? It's a real question.

MH: It is a real question. But ultimately, I think it comes back to having a sense of your place in the world. You have a sense of what others will respond to in terms of your actions and, ultimately, that feeds back into your behavior. So I think you're right, both the covering up and the ability to go forward are two parts of the story.

....

EM: I wouldn't say that I'm exactly surprised by it but it made me think that morality is the combination of two things: "I'm sorry," and "I'm sorry I got caught." There are two things always operating. There's you, and then there's what the world thinks of you.

MH: Yeah.

EM: If I do X, do I feel comfortable doing it? Do I feel comfortable doing X even though I know people will look at me with extreme disapproval?

MH: I mean that's the categorical imperative, right? If you want to work through the world of rights and wrongs, imagine would you feel comfortable doing it yourself. And now imagine a world in which everybody would do what you just did and would you feel comfortable there? You universalize it.

Worth reading here

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LSD and the corruption of medicine (Part V): The UK connection

This is the last in a series of posts marking the death of Albert Hofmann, inventor of LSD.

Over two decades starting in 1953 a CIA project named MK-ULTRA controlled a U.S. academic chemical interrogation research program. The seeds for many of the current problems of medicine lie in the story of MK-ULTRA. The research involved murder and the torture of tens of thousands of unwitting human participants. MK-ULTRA set the standard for later industrial-university collaboration. It set the most important precedent for the collusion of academic leadership and civilized government with scientific misconduct. It was the most flagrant violation of the just-signed Nuremberg code of ethics.

Porton Down LSD tests

Experiments on "unwitting" humans involving LSD and other agents were also carried out in the UK.

The tip of that iceberg is visible through cases which have come to court. In February 2006 three UK ex-servicemen were given compensation after admissions that they had been given LSD without their consent in the 1950s as part of torture related research at the Porton Down military medical research base[1]. They had been lied to about the experiments for 30 years (audio of one of the men describing his experiences here).

On Jan 31 2008 it was reported that 369 further victims of non-consensual experiments had been awarded a payment totalling £3million[2]. Up to 20,000 people took part in various trials at Porton Down in the 50 years up to 1989. Other servicemen died when they were exposed to chemical agents such as sarin at Porton Down experiments done without consent[3,4,5]. At least 25 health men may have died as a result of these experiments, including at least one who died immediately following exposure.

Cover up

The UK government has refused to apologise for the failure to obtain consent and the damage caused, saying only "The security of the country rested on these trials" and that "there may have been shortcomings and, where, in particular, the life or health of participants may have been put at risk"[2].

It is not clear how the "security of the country rested on these trials".

Cover-up has been palpable. Sham inquests were held in the 1950's in order to "protect national security", and parents of the men may have been induced to lie[6]. Ronald Maddison died within an hour of having sarin dripped onto his arm. The original inquest was held in secret, and ruled that he died of "asphyxia" [6]. Maddison's father agreed at the time to say his son's death was "an unfortunate accident while on duty" in order to "protect national security" [6]. The truth only emerged 50 years later.

A spokesman for the Foreign Office which deals with MI6 inquiries said:[7] "It's history: No one knows precisely what happened 52 years ago".

The nature of this supposed historical imprecision is in itself uncertain, in view of the fact that requests by the men to place pertinent case documents into the public domain were refused[1].

As in the U.S. there is the suggestion that parliamentarians were kept unaware. Bruce George, chairman of the Commons Defence Committee, said it would be misleading to say the parliamentary committee knew everything that was going on at the Porton Down base and that [8]: "It's too big for us to know, and, secondly, there are many things happening there that I'm not even certain ministers are fully aware of, let alone parliamentarians."

Involvement of Academia in the UK

In comparison with the U.S. there is less evidence for extensive collaboration between the intelligence services and academic institutions to conduct MK-ULTRA type research. British Psychiatrist William Sargant appears to have been funded by MK-ULTRA to perform experiments on patients at St. Thomas' Hospital[9,10,11]. Sargant worked closely with Ewen Cameron, the MK-ULTRA clinician at McGill.

There is some evidence that the abuses at Porton Down occurred with the knowledge and collusion of "professional medical bodies". UK Defence Minister John Spellar stated that:[8] "there are ethical procedures in place, that have been evolved in discussions not just with our people but with medical bodies as well".

I would like to know what that advice was and who gave it. UK Medical bodies, including the General Medical Council have not to my knowledge ever made it clear that doctors (and the bodies that represent them) should not engage in or facilitate torture. That is hardly a surprise.

References

  1. MI6 payouts over secret LSD tests. British Broadcasting Corporation (2008-05-03).
  2. Laura Smith, Owen Bowcott and Rob Evans (2008-01-31). Porton Down veterans awarded £3m compensation. The Guardian.
  3. MoD agrees sarin case settlement. British Broadcasting Corporation (2006-02-13).
  4. Police probe Porton Down deaths. British Broadcasting Corporation (2006-02-13).
  5. Orr James and Evans Rob (2008-01-17). Research base with a dark past. The Guardian.
  6. Tricked into nerve gas tests. British Broadcasting Corporation (2005-04-19).
  7. UK pays out for '50s LSD tests. Reuters (2006-02-24). Retrieved on 2008-05-03.
  8. Chemical base 'too big', says MP. British Broadcasting Corporation (1999-08-20).
  9. Anne Collins, "In the Sleep Room" Toronto: Lester and Orpen Dennys, 1988, ISBN 0-88619-198-X
  10. Marks, John (1979). The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: CIA and Mind Control. W W Norton & Co Ltd, 264. ISBN 0393307948.
  11. Thomas, Gordon (1988). Journey into Madness: Medical Torture and the Mind Controllers. Bantam Press, 398. ISBN 0593011422.
For Part I see Part I: Invention and the beginnings of MK-ULTRA
For Part II see Part II: The entanglement of academia
For Part III see Part III: Naming Names
For Part IV see Part IV: Pfizer and memory

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LSD and the corruption of medicine (Part IV): Pfizer and memory

Several pharmaceutical and chemical companies assisted MK-ULTRA and the US military to produce agents that were designed to kill or to incapacitate.

This Pfizer document "Research on New Chemical Incapacitating Agents". Part 1." By Chas. Pfizer and Co., Inc., (under contract to the Army's Chemical Research and Development Laboratories) dated Jun 30 1964 and declassified on Apr 16 2001 explains the intent.

In this report, Pfizer (then called Chas. Pfizer & Co., Inc.) discusses its first year of research under its contract to create incapacitating agents, which produce tremors, dysphoria, confusion, muscle fatigue, pain, vomiting, diarrhea, difficulty breathing or swallowing, hypersensitive skin, dangerously low blood pressure, and - most importantly - retrograde amnesia.

The program of research involved several drugs including LSD. From pages 45-6 of the report: "Retrograde amnesia has been considered as a novel type of incapacitation that a drug may produce and was, therefore, included as a part of our research program".

For any business to succeed, it must know why it is there, and what it is there to achieve. Pfizer's public mission statement is: "We dedicate ourselves to humanity's quest for longer, healthier, happier lives through innovation in pharmaceutical, consumer, and animal health products. To achieve this purpose and mission, Pfizer affirm the values of Integrity, Leadership, Innovation, Performance, Teamwork, Customer Focus, Respect for People and Community."

Anyone noticed any retrograde amnesia? Perhaps Voltaire (1694-1778) would provide inspiration for a more appropriate mission statement. History is after all nothing but a pack of tricks we play on the dead.

There is no shame.

For Part I see Part I: Invention and the beginnings of MK-ULTRA
For Part II see Part II: The entanglement of academia
For Part III see Part III: Naming Names

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LSD and the corruption of medicine (Part III): Naming names

This is the third in a series marking the death of Albert Hofmann, inventor of LSD. Over two decades starting in 1953 a CIA project named MK-ULTRA controlled a U.S. academic chemical interrogation research program.
For Part I see Part I: Invention and the beginnings of MK-ULTRA
For Part II see Part II: The entanglement of academia

The importance of names

Names matter and faces matter. Naming is part of the way in which we quality control any properly functioning system.

I have wondered how many executives of Eli Lilly, Schering Plough, Merck and GSK, or academics such as Martin Keller have stopped to consider what their children might think of them in years to come. Such individuals should expect to have to answer questions. They should not expect anonymity, particularly when people die or are injured as a result of their actions. They should expect to be judged by their children, communities, shareholders and religious organizations.

Ordinary people deserve some degree of anonymity. Executives of corporations and Deans of Medicine are not ordinary people. Those who place themselves in positions of moral authority as "regulators" are not ordinary people.

MK-ULTRA research was carried out with the quiet acquiescence of official medical bodies and with the active collusion of many individual academics. Many individuals were awarded high honours, and no physicians were ever punished. Despite attempts to destroy MK-ULTRA records[1-3], much documentary evidence is available and the names of many of the involved academics, universities and hospitals are now known. On my way through MK-ULTRA documents I noted many names. A majority were doctors. Most are no longer alive. Some were, to quote Lenin, simply MK-ULTRA's "useful idiots". For others, there is little doubt that the world would have been a far better place without them.

Some names

Here are some names of individuals and organizations:
  • Dr Sidney Gottlieb headed the MK-ULTRA program.
  • Charles Geschickter, a Georgetown doctor served both as researcher and funding conduit[2]. He tested drugs on mentally disturbed patients at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington[4]. For his own research he received $655,000 in CIA funds[5] (about $7 million at 2008 value). The CIA and MK-ULTRA provided secret funding for the construction of a wing of Georgetown University Hospital in the 1950s[2] to carry out clinical testing of LSD and other agents. The Geschickter Fund for Medical Research served as funding fronts for MKULTRA financing of academics.
  • Professors Harold Wolff and Lawrence Hinkle of Cornell University fronted the "The Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology"[5], a C.I.A organization used to channel money for MK-ULTRA research. In 1961 The Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology was reorganized as the Human Ecology Fund and operations of this front organization shifted to Cornell University’s Medical School[6]. James L. Monroe and later David Rhodes directed the fund[6]. Also on the Human Ecology board were Leonard Carmichael, head of the Smithsonian Institution, Barnaby Keeney president of Brown University, and George A. Kelly, at Ohio State University[5].
  • Many prominent names were funded through The Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, including:[6] B. F. Skinner, Carl Rogers, Carolyn and Musafer Sherif, Margaret Mead, Charles Osgood, Hans Eysenck, Martin Orne and Gregory Bateson.
  • One of the first MK-ULTRA funded studies was carried out at the National Institute for Mental Health-Lexington Rehabilitation Center in Kentucky[7]. Addicts were injected with hallucinogenic drugs including LSD, and as a reward were then supplied with their drug of addiction[7]. Dr. Harris Isbell a member of the FDA's Advisory Committee on the Abuse of Depressant and Stimulant Drugs was on the CIA payroll. He carried out extensive CIA funded studies without consent on inmates at the Addiction Research Center of the US Public Health Service Hospital in Lexington[5,7]. CIA documents describe experiments conducted by Isbell in patients (nearly all black) who were given LSD for more than seventy-five consecutive days[8].
  • Dr. Paul Hoch[9,10,11] and Carney Landis at the New York State Psychiatric Institute
  • Dr. Henry Murray[12,13] at Harvard University
  • Harold Abramson at Mount Sinai Hospital[5]
  • Carl Pfeiffer at the University of Illinois Medical School[5]. An MKSEARCH project provided about $20,000 per year to Pfeiffer, an internationally renowned pharmacologist. His CIA connection started in 1951, when he headed the Pharmacology Department at the University of Illinois Medical School[5]. He then moved to Emory University and tested LSD at the Federal penitentiary in Atlanta[5]. Later he conducted experiments on prisoners at the Bordentown reformatory in New Jersey[5].
  • Henry Beecher at Harvard University and Massachusetts General Hospital[5]
  • Charles Savage at the Naval Medical Research Institute[5]
  • Louis Jolyon West at the University of Oklahoma[5]
  • Harold Hodge at the University of Rochester[5]
  • Amedeo Marrazzi at the University of Minnesota and Missouri Institute of Psychiatry[5]. Other work at the University of Minnesota (perhaps involving hypnosis with or without drugs) was carried out by a PhD student Alden Sears. Sears later moved the CIA project to the University of Denver, and declined to do "the terminal experiments"[5]. He wrote that that the experiments that needed to be done "could not be handled in the University situation". He became a Methodist minister and refused to talk about his work[5].
  • James Dille at the University of Washington[5]
  • Gerald Klee at University of Maryland Medical School[5]. "Unwitting" drug tests appear to have been carried out at the University of Maryland[4].
  • Neil Burch at Baylor University[5]
  • Lincoln Clark tested LSD for the Army at Massachusetts General Hospital[5]
  • Letterman General Hospital San Francisco[2]
  • Medical Research Laboratory at Fort Knox[2]
  • Bob Hyde and colleagues at Boston Psychopathic Hospital[4,5]. The CIA funded the hospital's LSD program from 1952 at $40,000 a year. Hyde also advised the CIA on using LSD in covert operations[5]. Boston Psychopathic later changed its name to Massachusetts Mental Health Center.
  • Iowa State Hospital[4]
  • University of Indiana[4]
  • Wallace Chan and others at Stanford University[4]
  • Dr. L. Wilson Green[14] scientific director of the Chemical and Radiological Laboratories at the Army Chemical Center (named in public testimony)
  • Dr. Robert G. Heath[14] of Tulane Medical University (named in public testimony)
  • Dr. James Hamilton[14] (named in public testimony)
  • Dr Harold Abramson[7].
  • Albert D. Biderman of the Bureau of Social Science Research and Herbert Zimmer of University of Georgia edited a book on torture based on MK-ULTRA and related research[15,16]. The Bureau of Social Science Research was a conduit for funds from the U.S. Air Force. The authors included Robert Rogers Blake of the University of Texas, R. C. Davis of Indiana University, Louis Gottschalk of Cincinnati General Hospital, Lawrence Hinkle of Cornell Medical Center, Philip Kubzansky of Boston City Hospital, Malcolm Meltzer of the District of Columbia General Hospital, Jane Mouton of the University of Texas, and Martin Orne of Harvard University. Several of the papers in the book acknowledge the support of The Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, a front organization for MK-ULTRA and the CIA.

The special case of Dr Ewen Cameron

The activities of Dr. Ewen Cameron, a psychiatrist, deserve special mention. Cameron worked at McGill University's Allen Memorial Hospital while also living in Albany, New York.

In the 1950's and '60's, Cameron experimented on his patients under the auspices of the CIA and MK-ULTRA. "Patients of Dr. Cameron were subjected to a regimen that included heavy doses of LSD and barbiturates, the application of powerful electric shocks two or three times a day, and prolonged periods of drug-induced sleep." These were not primarily therapeutic interventions, nor were they intended to be. They were experiments. Cameron's assistant, Leonard Rubenstein, was paid from CIA funds[5]. According to Government records, "the patients and their relatives were not told they were taking part in an experiment." The research and the CIA involvement was admitted, and some 20 years later. In 1998 $750,000 was paid to nine Canadians in 1988 by the U.S. government[17,18]. Other cases were settled out of court.

The attorney, who represented the nine Canadians described the experiments in a 1988 Op-Ed entitled The C.I.A and the Evil Doctor[19]. He explained that "The research project tested the theory that a person could have some of the contents of his mind obliterated and replaced by ideas of the researcher's choosing". He noted that Cameron had abused patients on behalf of the CIA leaving them "dazed, confused, incontinent and often in a state of utter panic." And yet Cameron's "work" for the C.I.A on countless non-consenting patients over 20 years was well known to his peers, and some of it had been published. "Nevertheless, until he left McGill, no one publicly criticized Dr. Cameron's theories, his methods, or the ethics of risking permanent organic damage without patients' consent".

In one of his papers[20], Cameron described his treatment of patients in one of his procedures ("psychic driving") carried out on behalf of the C.I.A: "The effect of this procedure has been studied under various conditions, among them drug disinhibition, ordinary and prolonged sleep treatment, hypnosis under stimulant drugs and after prolonged psychological isolation."

Another of his papers on psychic driving[21] acknowledged the assistance of a grant from The Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology - a front organization for the CIA.

McGill has never publicly criticized the fact that his actions and "treatments" had been carried out to advance C.I.A research into torture in unwitting un-consented individuals. His studies were often carried out on patients with minor originating problems such as postpartum depression. Even today, the description of Cameron in the archives of McGill fails to mention what is now known about his activities there[22].

Cameron was however a man of power. He was president of the American Psychiatric Association, the Canadian Psychiatric Association, the World Psychiatric Association and other esteemed bodies. When he died in 1967, the American Journal of Psychotherapy published an obituary, listing his many "accomplishments", but making no mention at all of his terrible crimes[23]. It stated:
"His world-wide success in his profession was, of course, due principally to his great knowledge and brilliance. But surely a great factor also was the softness — one is tempted to say loveliness — of his personality. Those who were privileged to know him, even briefly, will not soon forget the warmth and the kindliness of this understanding man"

Names compiled by Dr Aubrey Blumsohn, Sheffield 2008
For Part I see Part I: Invention and the beginnings of MK-ULTRA
For Part II see Part II: The entanglement of academia

References

  1. September 1975 Memorandum regarding destruction of MK-ULTRA documents in 1973 - page 1, page 2
  2. SUMMARY OF AGENCY RECORDS RETRIEVAL, Interim Report of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, October 21, 1994 (1994).
  3. Helms, Richard (1978-05-22). Interview with Richard Helms, CIA, by David Frost. CIA.
  4. List of MKULTRA Unclassified Documents. The National Security Archive, George Washington University (2008-05-06).
  5. Marks, John (1979). The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: CIA and Mind Control. W W Norton & Co Ltd, 264. ISBN 0393307948.
  6. Price, David (June, 2007). "Buying a Piece of Anthropology: Human Ecology and unwitting anthropological research for the CIA". Anthropology Today 23 (3): 3-13.
  7. Church Committee Report page 391-399. U.S. Congress: Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, report no. 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.) (1976).
  8. Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties and Beyond (Grove Press, 1989)
  9. Treaster, Joseph B (1975-08-13). Army Discloses Man Died in Drug Test It Sponsored Pages 1,13. New York Times.
  10. Acid Dreams: A Mad Scientist. Acid Dreams.
  11. Church Committee Report page 385-6. U.S. Congress: Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, report no. 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.) (1976). Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
  12. Wikipedia - Henry A Murray
  13. Chase, Alston (2000-06). Harvard and the making of the Unabomber. The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved on 2008-05-04.
  14. U.S. Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments Public Meeting, Washington, D.C., March 15, 1995 (1995). Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
  15. Herbert, Biderman Albert D. & Zimmer (1961). The Manipulation of Human Behavior. John Wiley & Sons.
  16. Valtin (2006-12-16). Modern Torture's Scientific Bible. The Daily Kos. Retrieved on 2008-05-04.
  17. Shenon, Philip (1988-10-06). C.I.A. Near Settlement of Lawsuit by Subjects of Mind-Control Tests Page 14. New York Times.
  18. Shenon, Philip (1988-10-12). U.S. to Pay $750,000 In Suit on LSD Testing Page 12. New York Times.
  19. Rubenstein, Leonard S. (1988-11-07). The C.I.A. and the Evil Doctor. Page A19. New York Times.
  20. Cameron, D. Ewen (1956). "Psychic Driving". American Journal of Psychiatry 112: 502-9.
  21. Cameron, D. Ewen (1959). "Repetition of Verbal Signals: Behavioral and Physiological Changes". American Journal of Psychiatry 112: 985-96.
  22. McGill Teaching and Research Dr Ewen Cameron which fails to mention his activities and research for MK-ULTRA http://www.archives.mcgill.ca/resources/guide/vol2_3/gen01.htm
  23. Braceland, Francis J (1967). "In Memoriam: D. Ewen Cameron". American Journal of Psychotherapy 124: 860-1.
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LSD and the corruption of medicine (Part II): The entanglement of academia

Academic entanglement with torture

Over two decades starting in 1953 a CIA project named MK-ULTRA controlled a U.S. academic chemical interrogation research program. For Part I see here

The seeds for many of the current problems of medicine lie in the story of MK-ULTRA. The research involved murder and the torture of tens of thousands of unwitting human participants. MK-ULTRA set the standard for later industrial-university collaboration. It set the most important precedent for the collusion of academic leadership and civilized government with scientific misconduct. It was the most flagrant violation of the just-signed Nuremberg code of ethics. These events of 50 years ago provide a key to understanding the problems we face in 2008. The main focus of this section is to discuss how academics and Universities participated in MK-ULTRA funded research, and how the contracting worked.

MK-ULTRA started on Apr 13 1953[1] and was headed by Dr Sidney Gottlieb acting under the command of CIA director Allen Dulles. Many of the initial experiments involved LSD. Several smaller programs preceded MK-ULTRA. These were CHATTER, Bluebird, Artichoke, and MKNAOMI[2]. Project MKDELTA, was devoted to testing MK-ULTRA drugs on "unwitting" subjects abroad[3]. Other "unwitting" research was carried out on thousands of troops in the Army (projects THIRD CHANGE and DERBY HAT)[4].

Sidney Gottlieb was provided with $25 million in CIA funds to distribute to universities and others for MK-Ultra projects[5] between 1953 and 1963 (equivalent to $250 million in 2008). From 1953-1966 the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) spent $7.5 million on 84 research projects involving LSD with the CIA. Gottlieb was not simply a dispassionate accountant. According to surviving CIA documents Sidney Gottlieb personally fed LSD[6] to several individuals without their knowledge[7]. These included army officer Frank Olson (who died) and Stanley Milton Glickman, who became psychotic and permanently ill[7].

Destruction of MK-ULTRA documents and contracts

All MK-ULTRA documents were destroyed on Jan 31 1973[7,8] on instructions from CIA Director Richard Helms[7]. Helms subsequently admitted having ordered the destruction[9]. This hampered complete understanding of the many projects funded. However, the attempt at destruction was only partly successful because a cache of MK-ULTRA documents was later discovered.

In June 1977 a bundle of MK-ULTRA documents were found. These had escaped destruction, apparently by mistake. The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence held a hearing on Aug 03 1977 to question CIA officials on the discovered records, many of which have since been made public[10]. They tell a compelling story of criminal medical acts that occurred with the acquiescence of Universities, medical leadership and individual academics. From these documents and other government investigations, the names of many of the involved academics and Universities are now known. Furthermore, much is known of the way in which this contracting with universities occurred.

It is clear that one important motive for the destruction was to protect implicated academics and universities. Helms testified in 1975 that he ordered the records destroyed because[7,11]
"there had been relationships with outsiders in government agencies and other organizations and that these would be sensitive in this kind of a thing but that since the program was over and finished and done with, we thought we would just get rid of the files as well, so that anybody who assisted us in the past would not be subject to follow-up questions, embarrassment, if you will."
The CIA has also refused FOIA requests to supply the names of some academics and universities redacted from surviving documents[12]. Apart from embarrassment for "other organizations", the CIA Inspector General was also fully aware that the activities of MK-ULTRA would "have serious repercussions in political and diplomatic circles" if revealed. Further in 1957 he wrote in a memorandum that[3,13].
"precautions must be taken" to "conceal these activities from the American Public in general"

How did the system of academic collaboration work?

I have used some of the surviving MK-ULTRA documents to give an impression of the procedure. Rather than relate what the documents say, I have shown illustrative segments of the documents below. They tell their own story. Many of these declassified documents are available in electronic form[14]

a) The use of funding fronts


For anyone interested in the current functioning of pharmaceutical funding the implications of this will be clear. MK-Ultra used CIA money to fund university academics through front bodies designed to look like legitimate funding institutions[5]. We now know much about the identity of these conduits for MK-ULTRA funds. The Geschickter Fund for Medical Research the Macy Foundation and The Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology served as funding fronts for MK-ULTRA financing of academics[7,15].

Dr. Charles Geschickter, a Georgetown doctor served both as researcher and funding conduit. CIA documents indicate that Geschickter tested drugs on mentally disturbed patients at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington. For his own research he received $655,000 in CIA funds[16] (about $7 million at 2008 value). The CIA and MK-ULTRA provided secret funding for the construction of a wing of Georgetown University Hospital in the 1950s[7] to carry out clinical testing of LSD and other agents. Dr. Charles Geschickter acted as cover for CIA financing[7].

Professors Harold Wolff and Lawrence Hinkle of Cornell University fronted the "The Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology"[16], a C.I.A organization used to channel money for MK-ULTRA research. Harold Wolff was President of the New York Neurological Association and would become, in 1960, President of the American Neurological Association. He served for several years as editor-in-chief of the American Medical Association's Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry.[16]. In 1961 The Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology was reorganized as the Human Ecology Fund and operations of this front organization shifted to Cornell University’s Medical School[5]. James L. Monroe and later David Rhodes directed the fund[5]. Also on the Human Ecology board were Leonard Carmichael, head of the Smithsonian Institution, Barnaby Keeney president of Brown University, and George A. Kelly, at Ohio State University[16]. Despite signing documents which clearly indicated the funding source, Hinkle claimed that it was never his or Cornell's intention that the Society would be used as a CIA funding conduit.[16]

Many prominent names were funded through The Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, including:[5] B. F. Skinner, Carl Rogers, Carolyn and Musafer Sherif, Margaret Mead, Charles Osgood, Hans Eysenck and Martin Orne.

The CIA even conducted a study which found that the use of legitimate foundations was the most effective way of concealing the CIA’s hand. This study study suggested that this was ‘particularly effective for democratically-run membership organizations, which need to assure their own unwitting members and collaborators, as well as their hostile critics, that they have genuine, respectable, private sources of income.’ (US Senate 1976: 182-183)[5]

In some cases funding was passed through ostensible research foundation auspices to conceal the source of funding from the researcher's institution[3,17] even if the researchers themselves were aware.

It is undoubtedly the case that a few of these academics did not know the true source of funds. As pointed out in the Church Report these researchers were disabled from exercising choice to withdraw based on the nature of the sponsor[17]. Price discusses the way in which anthropologists such as Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson had "uncritical reliance on legitimate-seeming organizations that were secretly CIA funding fronts"[5]. Most researchers conducting the worst types of MK-ULTRA research could hardly have been unaware.

b) Buying physicians and academics

Here is some text from MK-ULTRA documents



c) Using the protection of the mechanisms of state when things go wrong

Because drugs were often administered to unwitting human beings, there were mechanisms in place to deal with the risk that medical practitioner outside of the research network might make a "correct diagnosis" of covert poisoning or drugging. It notes that: "The Bureau Officials also maintain a close working relationship with local police authorities which could be used to protect the activity in critical situations".

d) Double book-keeping

Scientific reports by researchers appear to have had public and secret versions. The public versions were sometimes published in academic journals and the secret versions went to the CIA[5]. One strange public version of MK-ULTRA research was even published as a book, titled "The Manipulation of Human Behavior"[18,19].

The book discusses techniques of torture and interrogation of an unwilling subject, and includes chapters such as "The Physiological State of the Interrogation Subject as it Affects Brain Function", "The Effects of Reduced Environmental Stimulation on Human Behavior" and "The Use of Drugs in Interrogation", and so on. Articles were written by academics paid to do this research via MK-ULTRA.


The editors were Albert D. Biderman of the Bureau of Social Science Research and Herbert Zimmer of University of Georgia. The Bureau of Social Science Research was a conduit for funds from the U.S. Air Force. The authors included Robert Rogers Blake of the University of Texas, R. C. Davis of Indiana University, Louis Gottschalk of Cincinnati General Hospital, Lawrence Hinkle of Cornell Medical Center, Philip Kubzansky of Boston City Hospital, Malcolm Meltzer of the District of Columbia General Hospital, Jane Mouton of the University of Texas, and Martin Orne of Harvard University. Several of the papers in the book acknowledge the support of The Society for the Investigation of Human Ecology, a front organization for MK-ULTRA and the CIA.

The nature of the work

Here are some clippings of MK-ULTRA documents - make up your own mind.










Here is an example of an MK-ULTRA LSD study report: Appendix A of the Select Committee on Intelligence report on "Project MKULTRA, The CIA's Program of Research in Behavioral Modification" described in some detail the LSD program.[20]. It noted for example that in one study "LSD was administered surreptitiously at a simulated social reception to volunteer subjects who were unaware of the purpose or nature of the tests in which they were participating". (See online reference for the full report)

Similar original reports from the US Army and Navy involving LSD

Example of LSD study report: Here is another report from the Department of the Army dated Jul 1971 and entitled "Lysergic Acid Diethyl Amide (LSD-25): A Clinical-Psychological Study"[21]. The study reported on the effect on personality of LSD given to 52 Army "volunteers" between 1962 and 1966. The work was carried out under Task IB662706AD2503 "Prophylaxis and Therapy for Incapacitating Agents". (See online reference for the full report)

Example of LSD study report: Here is the report of a Naval Medical Research Institute Project Protocol dated Sep 09 1951 and entitled "Studies of the Effect of Personality on Reactivity to LSD":[22]. The study investigated "the effects of lysergic acid diethyl amide (LSD-25 Sandoz) on the affect, cognition, and expression of five normal subjects and 15 depressed patients." presumably without consent. (See online reference for the full report)

Supreme Court Ruling on the case of Stanley: A highly criticized Jun 25 1987 U.S. Supreme Court Ruling declared that a soldier damaged by non-consensual research cannot sue the government[23]. The case was that of B. Stanley, a master sergeant stationed at Fort Knox, Kentucky. In February 1958 Stanley participated in a program ostensibly designed to test protective clothing. Four times that month, he was secretly administered LSD. He suffered hallucinations, incoherence, memory loss, and marked personality change. His marriage dissolved and he was discharged from the Army in 1969. (See online reference for court judgement).

References

  1. Church Committee Report page 390. U.S. Congress: Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, report no. 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.) (1976).
  2. Church Committee Report page 387-389. U.S. Congress: Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, report no. 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.) (1976).
  3. Church Committee Report page 391-399. U.S. Congress: Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, report no. 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.) (1976).
  4. Church Committee Report page 411-419. U.S. Congress: Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, report no. 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.) (1976).
  5. Price, David (June, 2007). "Buying a Piece of Anthropology: Human Ecology and unwitting anthropological research for the CIA". Anthropology Today 23 (3): 3-13.
  6. CIA, Memorandum for the Record, Project ARTICHOKE, January 31, 1975. CIA (1975-01-31).
  7. SUMMARY OF AGENCY RECORDS RETRIEVAL, Interim Report of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, October 21, 1994 (1994).
  8. September 1975 Memorandum regarding destruction of MK-ULTRA documents in 1973 - page 1, page 2
  9. Helms, Richard (1978-05-22). Interview with Richard Helms, CIA, by David Frost. CIA.
  10. MK-ULTRA Documents http://www.michael-robinett.com/declass/c000.htm
  11. Church Committee Report page 403-4. U.S. Congress: Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, report no. 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.) (1976).
  12. Alan L. Fitzgibbon v. Central Intelligence Agency Nos. 89-5213, 89-5214, U.A. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia (1990).
  13. Church Committee Report page 385-6. U.S. Congress: Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, report no. 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.) (1976).
  14. Some declassified MK-ULTRA documents http://www.michael-robinett.com/declass/c000.htm
  15. Umpleby, Stuart A (2008-05-05). A history of the cybernetics movement in the United States Vol 91(2) 54-66. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences.
  16. Marks, John (1979). The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: CIA and Mind Control. W W Norton & Co Ltd, 264. ISBN 0393307948.
  17. Church Committee Report page 422. U.S. Congress: Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, report no. 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (Washington, D.C.) (1976).
  18. Herbert, Biderman Albert D. & Zimmer (1961). The Manipulation of Human Behavior. John Wiley & Sons.
  19. Valtin (2006-12-16). Modern Torture's Scientific Bible. The Daily Kos. Retrieved on 2008-05-04.
  20. Appendix A of the Select Committee on Intelligence report on "Project MKULTRA, The CIA's Program of Research in Behavioral Modification"
  21. Lysergic Acid Diethyl Amide (LSD-25): A Clinical-Psychological Study
  22. Studies of the Effect of Personality on Reactivity to LSD
  23. Soldier cannot sue government for LSD experiments - U.S. v. Stanley, 479 U.S. 1005 (1986). Supreme Court of the United States (1987-07-25).

Dr Aubrey Blumsohn
Sheffield, UK


See also:
LSD and the corruption of medicine (Part I): Invention and the beginnings of MK-ULTRA

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Quiz question - Who produced LSD for the CIA and MK-ULTRA in 1954?

Before I post episide II of the MK-ULTRA story and its relevance for University contracting (See: LSD and the corruption of medicine -Part I), Matt Holford prompted me to find out who produced LSD for the MK-ULTRA sponsored torture studies. In my previous post I implied that Sandoz remained the source.

In fact CIA documents show that a U.S. source for LSD supply was desired. In 1953 the CIA provided Eli Lilly with funding to attempt synthesis of LSD for CIA use without the need for the expensive and scarce reagents required by Sandoz. A year later, Lilly chemists succeeded in their quest, and subsequent supplies were from Lilly[1,2]. Another more potent chemical used by MK-Ultra, BZ (3-quinuclidinyl benzilate), was produced by Hoffman-La Roche.

References:
  1. CIA documents: Document #24, 16 November, 1953, Subject: ARTICHOKE Conference; Document #268, 23 October, 1953, Subject: Meeting in Director's Office at 1100 hours on 23 October with Mr. Wisner and [deleted]; Document # 316,6 January,1954, Subject: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25); and Document #338, 26 October 1954, Subject: Potential Large Scale Availability of LSD through newly discovered synthesis by [deleted]; interviews with Sandoz and Lilly former executives; and Sidney Gottlieb's testimony before Kennedy subcommittee, 1977, p. 203.
  2. Marks, John (1979). The Search for the Manchurian Candidate: CIA and Mind Control. W W Norton & Co Ltd, 264. ISBN 0393307948


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Unemployed in Terms of Science

A bit of cleaning, and I came across this minor bit amusement from a year ago. It is a postal invitation from Procter and Gamble to attend their sponsored satellite meeting at the 2007 International Bone and Mineral Society meeting in Montreal. This is the meeting at which data was presented showing very poor concordance between the "findings" reported by P&G in the third of their three "scientific" Sheffield publications, and the actual underlying data (when it was revealed to "authors"). In fact there was little meaningful concordance.

I guess the meeting organizers had sold the list of registered attendees to P&G, and they in turn had reproduced the "academic appointment" field on their addressing.



Had I attended this satellite session on 27 June 2007 I would have received some CME credits for "Navigating the changing landscape of bisphosphonates to provide high quality osteoporosis therapy for patients" and would have learned how to "Cite clinical trial data showing key differences among bisphosphonate therapies". I would also have drunk a cocktail and eaten a Hors d'oeuvre.

Unemployment from this brand of schlock science is a welcome relief.

For the abstract about P&G's third publication see here. Or see the meeting poster and poster handout. Both explain the relevant background to this presentation. This was also the presentation subjected to the embarrassing assault by P&G's super science spy Dr Purple.

If you care about medicine, contact me to discuss the actual science. The Postgraduate institute for Medicine will reward you with a maximum of 2.0 AMA PRA Category 1 CME credits. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

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LSD and the corruption of medicine (Part I): Invention and the beginnings of MK-ULTRA

Albert Hofmann, the inventor of LSD died last week (on Apr 29 2008) at age 102 [1]. The invention of LSD is of considerable importance to any discussion about the corruption of science in medicine. The seeds for many of the current problems of medicine lie in the story of LSD and a mysterious organization called MK-ULTRA.

Hofmann's invention was the stimulus underlying a program of research which involved murder and the torture of tens of thousands of unwitting human participants. MK-ULTRA set the standard for later industrial-university collaboration. It set the most important precedent for the collusion of academic leadership and civilized government with scientific misconduct. It was the most flagrant violation of the just-signed Nuremberg code of ethics. These events of 50 years ago provide a key to understanding the problems we face in 2008.

Although there are some conspiracy theories surrounding these research programs, the basic facts are well documented. In the next few posts I will discuss some aspects of MK-ULTRA research, the documentation, how Universities were co-opted, and some of what we know of similar programs in the UK and Canada. Our current crises flow directly from the choices we made in the past.

MK-ULTRA research was carried out with the quiet acquiescence of official medical bodies and with the active collusion of many individual academics. It involved at least 30 Universities. It is not hard to conclude that many of the experimenters were frankly evil. Many were awarded high honours, and no physicians were ever punished for the gross ethical violations which occurred. It has taken more than 40 years for the facts to emerge. There was not a single "whistleblower".

The invention of LSD

On Nov 16 1938 Albert Hofmann, a chemist working for Sandoz in Switzerland synthesised LSD. Five years later on Apr 16 1943 he accidentally experienced LSD. He wrote:
"Last Friday, April 16, 1943, I was forced to interrupt my work in the laboratory in the middle of the afternoon and proceed home, being affected by a remarkable restlessness, combined with a slight dizziness. At home I lay down and sank into a not unpleasant, intoxicated-like condition characterized by an extremely stimulated imagination. In a dreamlike state, with eyes closed (I found the daylight to be unpleasantly glaring), I perceived an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors."

The involvement of the CIA

When Hofmann discovered LSD, the Cold War was in its opening act. By chance, Allen Dulles of the CIA was posted in Switzerland, and he ordered 10kg of LSD from Sandoz (approximately 100 million doses)[2]. Under Dulles, the CIA began a substantial program of non-consensual psycho-pharmaceutical research on tens of thousands of people, and the mysterious organization MK-ULTRA was created. The program occurred in parallel with the importation of Nazi doctors into the US through project "Paperclip".

Timothy Leary, Harvard and the Unabomber

LSD came into widespread recreational use through the ministrations of individuals such as Timothy Leary. Leary joined the faculty of Harvard University in 1959. He introduced students, faculty and friends to the hallucinogen psilocybin[3]. He then tried LSD in 1962 and proposed using it in experiments. In 1963 he tried it with some willing undergraduates, and Harvard dismissed him. Leary was certainly a misguided and dangerous publicist for a drug induced "experience". However, Richard Nixon called Leary "the most dangerous man in America".

Harvard was far less squeamish about brutal, secret and non-consensual experiments involving LSD. Theodore Kaczynski a.k.a. the Unabomber, was a volunteer in mind-control experiments sponsored by the CIA at Harvard in the 1950s involving administration of LSD[4]. This was 40 years before his bombing campaign and ultimate arrest on Apr 03 1996. The man who experimented on Kaczynski at Harvard was Dr. Henry Murray[5]. The research was under the control of Sidney Gottlieb, head of the CIA's "technical services division". Gottlieb himself fed LSD to the unwitting army officer Frank Olson, leading to his death. Gottlieb also fed LSD to Stanley Milton Glickman, who became psychotic and permanently ill. Murray merited the "Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award" from the American Psychological Association and "Gold Medal Award for lifetime achievement" from the American Psychological Foundation.

Early information about MK-ULTRA and Dr Paul Hoch

Information about MK-ULTRA started to emerge in the 1970's through the reporting of a few individual cases, but the full extent was not clear at that stage.

On Jan 8 1953 Harold Blauer, a widely known tennis professional, died after being injected with a massive dose of a mescaline derivative at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. Blauer was being treated for mild depression, but the injection was nothing to do with his treatment. The injection was part of secret Army-funded research conducted by Dr. Paul Hoch. 22 years later on 13 August 1975 a New York Times article[6] referred to the manner of his death. Bauer had been involved (unknown to him or the world) in non-disclosed US Army supported experiments. The Institute had been covertly administering hallucinogenic drugs to patients in order to observe reactions. Dr Hoch was director of experimental psychiatry at the Institute, and secret collaborator with the Army Chemical Corps chief of clinical research, Dr. Amedeo Marrazzi. An associate researcher was Dr. Carney Landis. The Institute was paid $32,000 for the work it did for the Army over 18 months. Hoch later became the Commissioner of Mental Hygiene for the State of New York.

Dr Hoch had performed many interesting experiments[7] while serving as a CIA consultant during the 1950s. He administered intraspinal injections of LSD causing an "immediate, massive, and almost shocklike picture with higher doses." He gave LSD to patients and then lobotomized them to compare the effects before and after psychosurgery. In one experiment a hallucinogen was administered, and the subject told to describe his experiences as surgeons removed bits of his brain. Of another experiment Hoch wrote "the emotional changes were apprehension and fear at times mounting to panic, persecutory misinterpretation of the environment, fear of death, intense irritability, suspiciousness, perplexity, and feelings of depersonalization".

The New York Times of 12 July 1975 also reported on the death of another person, one Frank B. Olson and the reopening of the inquiry into his death[8,9]. Olson had also been killed in an experiment 22 years earlier. He was a civilian biochemist working for the army and had been surreptitiously dosed with LSD and then plunged to his death from a hotel window in Manhattan on Nov 28 1953. At the time of his death, Olson had been in the care of two CIA agents. They did not inform the coroner that Olson had been given LSD, nor did anyone find out for 22 years.

Dr Aubrey Blumsohn 4 May 2008

To follow: Part II - LSD and the corruption of medicine: MK-ULTRA documents and the Anschluss of academia

References
  1. Albert Hofmann, father of LSD, dies in Switzerland. Associated Press (2008-05-03).
  2. Mullins, E. (1988-07). Murder by Injection. Natl Council for Medical Research. ISBN 9999785239.
  3. Mansnerus, Laura (1996-06-01). Obituary: Timothy Leary, Pied Piper Of Psychedelic 60's, Dies at 75. New York Times.
  4. Chase, Alston (2000-06). Harvard and the making of the Unabomber. The Atlantic Monthly.
  5. Wikipedia - Henry A Murray
  6. Treaster, Joseph B (1975-08-13). Army Discloses Man Died in Drug Test It Sponsored Pages 1,13. New York Times.
  7. Acid Dreams: A Mad Scientist. Acid Dreams.
  8. Treaster, Joseph B (1975-07-12). Death Inquiry Is Reopened in LSD Case Pages 1,11. New York Times.
  9. Rensberger, Boyce (1975-07-12). C.I.A. in the Early Nineteen-Fifties Was Among Pioneers in Research on LSD's Effects 11. New York Times.

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